File Formats

  1. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)- Saves the photo as a small file to save space. Mostly likely used for social media and emails.
  2. RAW: Most photographers use this file format because it keeps the quality of the image. The images are easy to edit.
  3. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)- It is used for pictures that might have to be edited after it is processed. It uses up more space on a memory card as well as computer storage. 
  4. DNG (Digital Negative Format)- Used to create a standard raw file format across all manufacturers and cameras, a problem that you may see is that in a few years, they might be unable to access them.
  5. PNG (Portable Network)- ideal for use on the internet, the quality is not a big file size.
  6. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)- It is useful for the internet like PNG, but it only contains a maximum of 256 colors. 
  7. PSD (Photoshop Document)-  allows for manipulation of specific individual layers, giving greater flexibility and the ability to adjust an image. 
  8. BMP (Bitmap)-  mainly for the Windows platform, but; this provides high-quality files.

Conceptual Self Portrait

Aperture: 1.7
ISO: 250
SS: 1/49

What is conceptual? As defined by Google, Concept art is a form of illustration where the main goal is to convey a visual representation of a design, idea, and/or mood for use in films, video games, animation, or comic books before it is put into the final product. Concept art is also referred to as visual development and/or concept design.  This photo is a concept representing me as a person.  For one, I have a vinyl from Earl Sweatshirt’s album “I don’t like sh*t, I don’t go outside” and it was my first physical record.  Music is a big thing I’m passionate about ever since I was a kid.  Next is a pop vinyl of Matt Murdock(also known as Daredevil),  when I was younger I would jump interests really easily.  My brother was really into superheroes and comic and he got me into superheroes as a kid and it set me onto being fully absorbed and obsessed with fiction.  Next, I have the book by Chuck Palahniuk Fight Club. Another thing that my brother got me into growing up was books and movies.  I would watch indie films that he would recommend me often and it also became a big part of me.  As for books, books played another huge role for me because of how I would select books over everything else.  I would get the hardest, highest level books I could find when I had to do weekly summaries in elementary and middle school.  Finally, plants or even just nature has always fascinated me.  When I was about 4 or 5, my grandma would take care of me when my parents were busy.  She had a garden in her backyard and got me interested in gardening.  A few years later, my mom would let me watch interior design shows with her and plants became part of how I design spaces in my house.  Now I have 22 plants and the one that’s shown in the image is called Monstera Deliciosa and grows leaves about 2-3 feet in diameter with fenestrations in the leaves.  These passions are only few, but they all represent me in big ways.

Cindy Sherman is a very creative and unique artist.  She has her own style in creating very eerie and surreal images.  Many of her photos depict clowns and they all sort of give off this The Twilight Zone/ Dr. Seuss kind of vibe. This particular image is very interesting because it seems to be a person decomposing over the forest.  The surreal aspect in this is how a person could be sized up to a huge piece of land.


1. In order to find the perfect lens, you have to know what you’re going to be shooting.

2. The cost of the lens is dependent on multiple factors.

3. All primary camera and lens manufacturers offer a variety of focal lengths to satisfy a plethora of budgets.

4. Wide angles give a wide expansive view and if you use it correctly, it can wrap you in the scene.

5. Lenses for landscape work tend to range from 14mm f/2.8, 16-35 f/2.8 and 24mm f/1.4.

6. Standard lenses tend to range from about 35mm up to around 85mm.

7. Telephoto zooms allow one to stand back a little when the subject isn’t quite as approachable or when you might be feeling overwhelmed by the presence of the camera.

8.Telephoto lenses compress distance, which distorts perspective and makes things look further away.

9. The telephoto lens compresses the distance, making the layers of mountains and mist flat looking.

10. Telephoto lenses are also excellent for sports, nature and wildlife.

11. Too slow of a shutter speed will result in motion blur.

12. A “fast” lens usually has an aperture of f/4, f/2.8.

13. A tilt-shift or perspective correction lens might be your choice.

14. Beyond the usual types of lenses, there are a variety of specialty lenses available.

15. Wide angles distort perspective and make things look further away.

16. Prime lenses are lenses that are just one focal length.

17. Standard zoom lenses are great walk-around lenses.

18. Lenses in the standard zoom range will cover moderate wide angles.

19. If you really want to shoot like a professional,you’ll want a 300mm f/4, 300mm f/2.8 or 400mm f/2.8

20. Telephoto zooms allow the photographer to become lazy.


5 TIPS Outdoor Portrait

  1. Focus on the eyes of the subject
  2. Shoot on cloudy days because it helps with shadows and brings out colors.
  3. Power lines and street signs should not be in the frame.
  4. Be creative with each angle.
  5. Add details to make the image more eye-catching.

Camera Modes

Portrait mode- Your background will be out of focus.  This will make the subject pop more and it will have more focus.

Macro mode- Macro mode is good for when you want to take a photo of a tiny subject.  Think of something like a water droplet on a coin.

Landscape mode- You will have a small aperture and large depth of field.  This is good to use for a shot of a sunset on a horizon.

Sports mode- Used to take shots of a moving subject in a shot.  Think of photographing Basketball or Football.

Night mode- Used in low light settings for an image.  This mode results in a longer shutter speed.

Movie mode- This shot captures sound in an image.  Somewhat similar to IPhone live photos.

Panoramic mode- allows you to capture more of the scene by combining images to create a panned photo.  Stretches across an image and the photo ends up looking long and captures more across.

Snow mode- The subject takes in less exposure.  Used in snowy scenes.

Firework mode- Used to take photos of fireworks.  This allows for manual aperture and exposure control.

Kids and pet mode- Speeds up the shutter for fast moving subjects.  Camera will pre-focus for these shots.

Underwater mode- Used for underwater photography.  Uses white balancing to warm the image.

Beach mode- Use when a scene contains a large amount of bright white or reflective material.  Lowers exposure of the white area.

Indoor mode- helps with lighting and shutter speed. Shutter falls between 1/60 and 1/200.

Foliage mode- boosts saturation to make colors pop.  Use to take closer shots of nature.

Depth of Field: Explained

The depth field is a image that isn’t fixed and is determined by the focal point in an image.  The depth of field can change and tends to effect the background with a sort of blur.  The depth of field is referred to as either a “shallow” depth of field or a “deep” depth of field.  A shallow depth of field where a small area of the image becomes high quality and sharp, whereas a deep depth of field shows most of the image to be sharp.  To put it into perspective, a landscape image that shows a sun set/rise will often stretch across the middle of a picture.  This picture can then have the depth of field to be adjusted to shallow to obtain a sharp focal point leading across the horizon.  Additionally, you can make the depth of field to make it deeper if you want the detail to capture across the entire image.

The majority of DSLRs come with a “Depth of Field Preview” button setting on the camera.  This can be found near the lens mount.  In addition to this, it can be controlled by changing the aperture to your liking.  The focus distance and type of camera also plays a role in controlling the depth of field.  When you’re far away from the subject, a wide aperture offers a better depth of field.  Changing your distance from the subject is a far less convenient method of changing the depth of field, changing your aperture setting is a far better option for a shot.